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Transfer and Special Populations

Youth younger than 18 prosecuted in criminal court: National estimate, 2015 cases

Author: Charles Puzzanchera, Melissa Sickmund, Anthony Sladky Organization: National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Research from National Center for Juvenile Justice provides an estimate of youth transferred to criminal court by judicial waiver in 2015.

Native American Youth and the Juvenile Justice System: Youth in the Adult System (7)

A growing number of studies and reports have made it clear that minority youth in general are more likely than White youth to be arrested, adjudicated, and incarcerated in juvenile justice systems across the US. Although not as large as those for African Americans, disparities between Native American youth and White youth are alarmingly high and in need of remediation

Missed Opportunity: Waiver, Race, Data, and Policy Reform

This Article examines the major research on waiver and discusses what it reflects about racial differences. This Article then describes data collection and analysis at pre-adjudication decision points in the juvenile justice system in multiple jurisdictions and considers how this data substantially reduces racial and ethnic disparities. Finally, this Article suggests new collection and analysis of data that would enable jurisdictions to change waiver policies and practices and to reduce racial and ethnic disparities among youth. 

Detained Youth Processed in Juvenile and Adult Court: Psychiatric Disorders and Mental Health Needs

This bulletin presents results of a study of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among youth transferred to adult criminal court compared with those processed in juvenile court. 

Unjust: How the Broken Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems Fail LGBTQ Youth

This report offers a snapshot of how the U.S. criminal justice fails lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queera (LGBTQ) youth. As shown in the graphic on page 1, LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in juvenile detention centers: the percentage of LGBT and gender nonconforming youth in juvenile detention is double that of LGBTQ youth in the general population. LGBTQ youth, particularly LGBTQ youth of color, face discrimination and stigma that lead to criminalization and increased interactions with law enforcement and the criminal justice system. Once within juvenile and criminal justice systems, LGBTQ youth face bias in adjudication and mistreatment and abuse in confinement facilities. Finally, LGBTQ youth lack supportive services when leaving the criminal justice system, often forcing them back into negative interactions with law enforcement. 

No Place for Youth: Girls in the Adult Justice System

While not intended as a research document, this bulletin highlights challenges when transferring juveniles to the adult criminal justice system for administrators and the individual justice involved girls. It is hoped that the audience for this document will extend beyond that of adult and juvenile correctional administrators and reach other related stakeholders who are involved in the decision-making regarding the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system. 

Prosecution, Transfer, and Registration of Serious Juvenile Sex Offenders

This overview paints a broad picture of the state of the law in the United States regarding these issues, and then takes a look at the relevant provisions regarding sex offender registration and notification for juveniles adjudicated delinquent in juvenile court of serious sex offenses.